عجفت الغور

anfal campaign

Tags: iraq

Gas attacks under Baath that killed over 200,000 Kurds

  • Has a ministry of martyrs and anfal in Erbil
  • Also interesting that the word “anfal” has been transformed into a general meaning for “genocide”

Prelude

  • 8 campaigns in all
  • Sheikh Wasan and Balisan attacks are significant because they are the first fully documented account of chemical attacks on civilians by the Iraqi regime

Balisan bombings

  • meticulous looting and bombings of villages, cleared out with dynamite and bulldozers
  • No standard procedure for the collection of corpses
    • either delivered to hospitals in Erbil, or ambulances would be summoned to collect the bodies from Einkawa
  • one of the first rounds of chemical bombings that occured
  • total: 225-400, death counts:
    • 24 immediate deaths in balisan
    • 103 deaths in Sheikh Wasan
    • 8-9 in Raniya hospital
    • 4 DOA on Erbil Emergency Hospital
    • 64-142 deaths in the Amn detention center
    • 2 busloads of men and boys disappeared, anywhere between 70-76
    • “many children” on barren plain near Khalifan

Spring 1987 Campaign

  • Destruction of >703 kuridsh villages
    • 219 in the erbil area
    • 122 in Germian (south of kirkuk)
    • 320 in the various districts around Suleimaniya
  • Main difference from anfal afterwards:
    • 1987 campaign had forced relocations, such as Narin being relocated to nahya in the southern part of Germian
    • Zerdow was warned before the village itself was cleared
      • Also paid compensation from the state, villagers were not physically harmed, token compensation was paid if family accepted relocation

June 8th 1987 Declaration

  • First application of shoot-to-kill order with zero subsequent authorization signed by al-Majid

1987 Census

  • Designed to be carried out every decade, and was used by saddam to keep track of which families aligned themselves with the government